|Hot-dip galvanizing defects
|Rough surface condition
|Presence of impurities in the base metal, lengthy pickling process, prolonged immersion time in molten zinc bath, too high temperature of molten zinc bath, presence of dross in the melt, high impurity content of zinc ingot
|Slow cooling, piling up the galvanized components on top of one another
|The coating is too thick; high silicon content of the galvanized component; prolonged immersion time in molten zinc bath
|The degreasing and pickling processes are not done properly and paint markings, oil and oxide are not removed from the component surface; the protective flux layer is damaged due to the components clashing during the process; high impurity of the components
|The hydrogen produced during pickling is entrapped at the surface of the steel component and adsorbed by steel during the immersion in molten bath. Such blistering is accompanied by the embrittlement of steel.
|The gray coating is an impure coating with layers of zinc and iron alloys being visible. The reasons for this defect are attributed to the high content of impurities in base metal, such as oxide and silicon, lengthy immersion in molten bath, slow cooling, and uneven surfaces.
|Entrapment of dross particles underneath the pure zinc coating during the withdrawal of the component from the melt
|Presence of iron hydroxide at the surface in form of brownish red stains due to the storage of galvanized pieces adjacent to rusty components, or oozing acid solution from the gaps, which is entrapped during the degreasing stage
|Conversion of the pure surface zinc to zinc carbonate due to exposure to air; the carbonates react with moisture in the environment and form a white layer of zinc hydroxide.
|Presence of burnt ashes at the surface of molten zinc bath
|Burning of the flux layer, presence of impurities at the surface of the molten zinc bath